Research studies indicate that the number of African Americans diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is disproportionately higher than other demographic groups. A consensual qualitative research (CQR) design was used to understand the contextual factors, diagnostic processes and implications associated with ODD in African American males. Six mental health professionals were interviewed and four domains identified: insurance influence, ODD diagnostic criteria, ODD stigmatization, and assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. Findings indicated that factors beyond the health needs of the client, including counselor bias, might play a critical role in diagnostic assessment. Implications are provided for counselors and counselor educators. Recommendations for further research are suggested on the diagnosis–billing model and the long-term implications of ODD diagnoses for African American males.
Counseling graduate students may begin practicum with low self-efficacy regarding their counseling abilities and skills. In the current study, we implemented a small-series (N = 11) single-case research design to assess the effectiveness of the practicum experience to increase counseling students’ self-efficacy. Analysis of participants’ scores on the Counselor Activity Self-Efficacy Scale yielded treatment effects indicating that the practicum experience encompassing direct services, group supervision, and triadic supervision may be effective for increasing counselor self-efficacy. Given that the practicum experience with triadic supervision was a promising approach for improving counseling graduate students’ self-efficacy, we provide implications for counselor educators to integrate triadic supervision and self-efficacy to the forefront of discussions.
Advocacy with and on behalf of clients is a major way in which counselors fulfill their core professional value of promoting social justice. Career counselors have a unique vantage point regarding social justice due to the economic and social nature of work and can offer useful insights. Q methodology is a mixed methodology that was used to capture the perspectives of 19 career counselors regarding the relative importance of advocacy interventions. A two-factor solution was reached that accounted for 60% of the variance in perspectives on advocacy behaviors. One factor, labeled focus on clients, emphasized the importance of empowering individual clients and teaching self-advocacy. Another factor, labeled focus on multiple roles, highlighted the variety of skills and interventions career counselors use in their work. Interview data revealed that participants desired additional conversations and counselor training concerning advocacy.
This study investigated factors from high school that might predict college persistence. The sample consisted of 7,271 participants in three waves of data collection (2002, 2004 and 2006) who participated in the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS; U.S. Department of Education, 2008). A multinomial logistic regression mode was employed to distinguish those who persisted from those who did not. Results indicated that number of hours engaged in extracurricular activities and interaction with the math teacher outside of class distinguished those who persisted in a four-year college from those that did not. Implications for school, community, mental health and college student development counselors are discussed.
This investigation examined the potential impact of a school-based youth intervention program on the attitudes and behavioral patterns of at-risk youth. The sample size used in this study was 52; 24 participants received the school-based intervention and 28 participants did not receive the intervention. A two-group pretest-posttest design approach was implemented. A two-phase behavioral intervention was used with at-risk youth who were returning from a remanded period at an alternative school in lieu of expulsion from school. After the conclusion of the intervention program, school attitudes, behavioral indicators and academic success indicators were evaluated. The results of this study revealed that there was a significant treatment effect on youth’s school attitudes.
The Mental Health Facilitator (MHF) program utilizes a population-based curriculum and has been implemented in Malawi for the past seven years. This article reports findings from an ethnographic study that explored how 40 MHF stakeholders have experienced the MHF program. This transdisciplinary program is a 30-hour training in community mental health that focuses on fundamental helping skills; identification of stress, distress and mental disorders; and appropriate community referral and follow-up. Results indicated four interrelated themes representing participants’ beliefs about their experiences with the training, including the curriculum’s responsiveness to the Malawian context, the availability and limitations of resources, the processes involved, and a variety of identified outcomes. Implications for community implementation and future directions are identified.
Counselor education departments have a unique opportunity to implement feedback informed treatment (FIT) systems that serve as continual assessment procedures by informing counselors, clients, supervisors and educators about client functioning and progress toward goals. These systems hold potential benefits within counselor training such as a positive impact on supervision, student development and student learning outcome evaluation. This article contains an overview of what a FIT system is, reviews of the psychometric properties and steps for administering and scoring three main FIT systems, and a synopsis of the potential benefits and utility of FIT systems within counselor education. Implications for counselor education are discussed.
Adult attachment and parental bonding have been linked to anxiety disorders, but rarely have these associations been demonstrated in the same study. To fill this gap in the research literature, we utilized several different self-report measures to examine the relationships among adult attachment style, memories of early bonding experiences, and five types of anxiety in a sample of 201 undergraduate psychology students. Significant correlations were found between early bonding memories and secure, preoccupied and fearful attachment styles, but not between early bonding memories and dismissing attachment style. Secure attachment style negatively correlated with every type of anxiety, whereas preoccupied and fearful attachment styles positively correlated with every type of anxiety. Dismissing attachment style did not correlate with any anxiety type. Results also indicated correlations between early bonding memories and both post-trauma and social anxiety symptoms, but there was no relationship between bonding and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, panic or worry.
Excoriation disorder (also called skin picking disorder) is a newly added, often overlooked mental disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (APA, 2013). The purpose of this article is to increase professional counselors’ abilities to recognize and effectively address the symptoms of excoriation disorder. In this article, the etiologies, diagnostic criteria and assessment strategies for excoriation disorder are described. Excoriation disorder develops as the result of biological and physical contributors and might serve to regulate emotions. A review is provided of specific interventions and treatments, such as cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy, which have demonstrated success in treating those who have excoriation disorder.
Issues regarding the diagnosis and treatment of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) continue to be of increasing concern to practitioners in educational and mental health settings. Given this rising concern, it is important to note that the majority of research regarding self-injury has focused on the symptomology and treatment of Caucasian females; little work has been done regarding the prevalence, presentation and treatment of self-injury with other populations (Marchetto, 2006). This article provides a rationale for addressing gender, culture and other issues of diversity in relation to self-injurious behaviors, including analysis of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey to provide empirical evidence for why additional issues of diversity need to be addressed. Implications for clinical counseling practice are discussed.