1 TPC Digest These two variables were included because the opportunity to access school counseling services is an important part of a student’s schooling background, and lack of access could limit the ability to receive college-readiness counseling that could positively impact STEM outcomes. The participants were part of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) developed by the National Center of Educational Statistics (NCES). Over 23,000 students provided information from the ninth grade until they would be in their third year of college. The author of this article looked at relevant student variables, including gender, SES, FGCS status, race/ethnicity, and math and science self-efficacy. The author also included school counselor caseload (either meeting the 250:1 recommended ratio or not) and percentage of time spent on college-readiness counseling as variables (above or below the national average of 21% of time). The outcome studied was whether a student persisted in a STEM major or attained a STEM postsecondary degree three years after high school graduation. Results suggest several student characteristics and access to school counseling/college-readiness counseling does have an impact on long-term STEM outcomes. Access to school counselors who spend 21% or more of their time on college-readiness counseling predicted persistence and attainment of a STEM postsecondary degree. Additionally, when all other variables were controlled, Hispanic- and Asian-identifying students were more likely to persist and attain, and females were less likely to persist and attain. Math and science self-efficacy predicted persistence and attainment, and STEM GPA was a positive predictor. School counselors can use this information to inform their college-readiness counseling work with students. First, it appears that spending 21% or more of time on college-readiness counseling predicts STEM major attainment and persistence in students. Again, the disparities in STEM outcomes are an opportunity gap, not an achievement gap, and all students need the opportunity to receive STEM education and self-efficacy support and interventions. This can include providing STEM occupation information, verbal persuasion and encouragement to pursue STEM goals, addressing school climate so that it’s inclusive for female and minoritized students to pursue futures in STEM, and conducting group interventions to improve math and science self-efficacy. Dana L. Brookover, PhD, NCC, is a licensed school counselor and an assistant professor at the University of Scranton. Correspondence may be addressed to Dana L. Brookover, McGurrin Hall Room 435, McGurrin Hall, The University of Scranton, Scranton, PA 18510, brookoverdl@gmail.com. Read full article and references: Brookover, D. L. (2021). Access to school counseling and the Connection to postsecondary STEM outcomes. The Professional Counselor, 11(4), 383–399. doi: 10.15241/dlb.11.4.383 1 | i t