TPC Journal-Vol 11-Issue-3 - FULL ISSUE

313 Hannah B. Bayne, Danica G. Hays, Luke Harness, Brianna Kane Whiteness Scholarship in the Counseling Profession: A 35-Year Content Analysis We conducted a content analysis of counseling scholarship related to Whiteness for articles published in national peer-reviewed counseling journals within the 35-year time frame (1984–2019) following the publication of Janet Helms’s seminal work on White racial identity. We identified articles within eight counseling journals for a final sample of 63 articles—eight qualitative (12.7%), 38 quantitative (60.3%), and 17 theoretical (27.0%). Our findings outline publication characteristics and trends and present themes for key findings in this area of scholarship. They reveal patterns such as type of research methodology, sampling, correlations between White racial identity and other constructs, and limitations of White racial identity assessment. Based on this overview of extant research on Whiteness, our recommendations include future research that focuses on behavioral and clinical manifestations, anti-racism training within counselor education, and developing a better overall understanding of howWhite attitudes and behaviors function for self-protection. Keywords: Whiteness, White racial identity, counseling scholarship, counseling journals, content analysis Counselors are ethically guided to understand and address the roles that race, privilege, and oppression play in impacting both themselves and their clients (American Counseling Association [ACA], 2014). Most practitioners identify as White despite the population diversity in the United States (U.S. Census Bureau, 2020), which holds implications for understanding how Whiteness impacts culturally competent counselor training and practice (Helms, 1984, 1995, 2017). It is important, then, to understand the role of racial identity within counseling, particularly in terms of how Whiteness can be deconstructed and examined as a constant force impacting power dynamics and client progress (Helms, 1990, 2017; Malott et al., 2015). Whiteness models (i.e., Helms, 1984) describe how White people make meaning of their own and others’ racial identity as a result of personal and social experiences with race (Helms, 1984, 2017). The Helms model, along with other constructs, such as color-blindness (Frankenberg, 1993), White racial consciousness (Claney & Parker, 1989), and White fragility (DiAngelo, 2018), implicates the harmful impacts of Whiteness and invites critical reflection of how these constructs impact the counseling process. Though much has been theorized regarding Whiteness and its impact within the helping professions, the contributions of Whiteness scholarship within professional counseling journals are unclear. An understanding of the specific professional applications and explorations of Whiteness within counseling can help identify best practices in counselor education, research, and practice to counter the harmful impacts of Whiteness and encourage growth toward anti-racist attitudes and behaviors. White Racial Identity and Related Constructs The Helms (1984) model of White racial identity (WRI) presents Whiteness as a developmental process centering on racial consciousness (i.e., the awareness of one’s own race), as well as awareness of attitudes The Professional Counselor™ Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 313–326 © 2021 NBCC, Inc. and Affiliates doi: 10.15241/hbb.11.3.313 The authors would like to thank Cheolwoo Park for his invaluable assistance in this study. Hannah B. Bayne, PhD, LMHC (FL), LPC (VA), is an assistant professor at the University of Florida. Danica G. Hays, PhD, is a dean and professor at the University of Nevada Las Vegas. Luke Harness is a doctoral student at the University of Florida. Brianna Kane is a doctoral student at the University of Florida. Harness and Kane contributed equally to the project and share third authorship. Correspondence may be addressed to Hannah B. Bayne, 140 Norman Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611,