TPC Journal-Vol 11-Issue-3 - FULL ISSUE

The Professional Counselor | Volume 11, Issue 3 325 to Whiteness that we had identified in related literature but may have missed studies employing constructs outside of our search criteria. Our own identities as White academics may also have influenced the coding process as well as the subsequent interpretation of findings. Conclusion This content analysis provides a snapshot of Whiteness scholarship conducted in the counseling profession during a 35-year period. Patterns of study design and analysis were noted, and key findings were summarized to provide context and comparison within the broader literature. Identified themes and relationships highlight theoretically consistent findings for some Whiteness constructs, as well as showcase research gaps that need to be addressed before counselors can apply findings to practice and training. Finally, this content analysis demonstrates the need for a greater understanding of Whiteness and related constructs in counselor education, training, and practice. Conflict of Interest and Funding Disclosure The authors reported no conflict of interest or funding contributions for the development of this manuscript. References American Counseling Association. (2014). ACA code of ethics. Behrens, J. T. (1997). Does the White Racial Identity Attitude Scale measure racial identity? Journal of Counseling Psychology, 44(1), 3–12. Burkard, A. W., Ponterotto, J. G., Reynolds, A. L., & Alfonso, V. C. (1999). White counselor trainees’ racial identity and working alliance perceptions. Journal of Counseling & Development, 77(3), 324–329. Carter, R. T., Helms, J. E., & Juby, H. L. (2004). The relationship between racism and racial identity for White Americans: A profile analysis. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32(1), 2–17. Choney, S. K., & Behrens, J. T. (1996). Development of the Oklahoma Racial Attitudes Scale Preliminary Form (ORAS-P). Multicultural Assessment in Counseling and Clinical Psychology. https://digitalcommons.unl. edu/burosbookmulticultural/10 Claney, D., & Parker, W. M. (1989). Assessing White racial consciousness and perceived comfort with Black individuals: A preliminary study. Journal of Counseling & Development, 67(8), 449–451. Day-Vines, N. L., Wood, S. M., Grothaus, T., Craigen, L., Holman, A., Dotson-Blake, K., & Douglass, M. J. (2007). Broaching the subjects of race, ethnicity, and culture during the counseling process. Journal of Counseling & Development, 85(4), 401–409. DiAngelo, R. (2018). White fragility: Why it’s so hard for White people to talk about racism. Beacon Press. Frankenberg, R. (1993). White women, race matters: The social construction of Whiteness. University of Minnesota Press. Hays, D. G., Bolin, T., & Chen, C.-C. (2019). Closing the gap: Fostering successful research-practice partnerships in counselor education. Counselor Education and Supervision, 58(4), 278–292. Hays, D. G., Chang, C. Y., & Havice, P. (2008). White racial identity statuses as predictors of White privilege awareness. The Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 47(2), 234–246.