TPC Journal-Vol 11-Issue-3 - FULL ISSUE

330 The Professional Counselor | Volume 11, Issue 3 the 5,000 ASCA members completed the survey (4.52%). An a priori power analysis (Cohen, 1992) with a power of .8, a medium effect size, and α = .05 determined that the required sample size for our most robust test was 175. Participants were 226 current school counselors (201 women, 88.9%; 25 men, 11.1%). The racial categories included 192 White (85%), nine Black or African American (4%), eight “other” races (3.5%), six Asian (2.7%), five biracial or multiracial (2.2%), three American Indian or Alaska Native (1.3%), and three not reporting race (1.3%). The ethnicity categories included 210 participants (92.9%) who were not of Hispanic or Latino or Spanish origin and 16 (7.1%) who were of Hispanic or Latino or Spanish origin. The mean age was 39 years (SD = 10.68), and the mean years of experience working as a school counselor was 7 (SD = 6.98). With regard to school setting, 52 school counselors worked in an elementary or primary school (23%), 58 worked in a middle or junior high school (25.7%), 81 worked in a high school (35.8%), 19 worked in a K–12 school (8.4%), and 16 worked in another type of school not listed (7.1%). Although ASCA does not provide demographic information about their members, this sample is similar in its demographic makeup to the sample in Gilbride et al.’s (2016) study, which sought to describe the demographic identity of ASCA’s membership. Instrumentation The survey packet consisted of three instruments: the demographic questionnaire, the Counselor Suicide Assessment Efficacy Survey (CSAES; Douglas & Wachter Morris, 2015), and the Workplace Anxiety Scale (WAS; McCarthy et al., 2016). Demographic Questionnaire Using a demographic questionnaire, we asked participants to identify the following information: sex, race, ethnicity, age, years of school counseling experience, and school type (e.g., high school, middle school). Additionally, we asked participants to identify the types of suicide exposures that they have encountered in their school counseling careers. If they reported exposure to either deaths by suicide or suicide attempts, the survey followed up with additional questions about the number of exposures, the amount of time since the first suicide exposure, and the amount of time since the most recent suicide exposure. We asked participants if their schools had crisis plans or crisis teams. We also asked participants if they had training in suicide prevention, crisis intervention, and suicide postvention during graduate school and the number of postgraduate training hours in each of these areas. CSAES The CSAES evaluates counselors’ confidence in their ability to assess clients for suicide risk and intervene with a client at risk of suicide. It includes 25 items in four subscales: General Suicide Assessment, Assessment of Personal Characteristics, Assessment of Suicide History, and Suicide Intervention. Each item is rated on a 5-point Likert scale from 1 (not confident) to 5 (highly confident). High scores indicate high self-efficacy. Among school counselors in the original study, each subscale had good internal consistency (α = .88–.81) and acceptable goodness of fit. As suggested by Douglas and Wachter Morris (2015), we scored each subscale separately and averaged each score. This process created four comparable subscale scores. WAS The WAS measures participants’ job-related anxiety. This scale asks participants to rate eight items such as “I worry that my work performance will be lower than that of others at work” on a 5-point scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). High scores on the WAS indicate higher levels of job-related anxiety. The WAS demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .94) and acceptable goodness of fit (McCarthy et al., 2016).