TPC Journal-Vol 11-Issue-3 - FULL ISSUE

The Professional Counselor | Volume 11, Issue 3 359 change in self-reported substance use from pre- to post-intervention, which remained low, we believe the uptick in the CRAFFT motor vehicle item does not reflect the adolescent reporting on their own use in a car, but rather an increase in riding with others who are under the influence of substances. This finding has significance for future curriculum development, which may increase content related to managing situations involving substance use and motor vehicles. Table 1 Means and Standard Deviations of Major Study Variables Pre-Assessment Post-Assessment Mean SD Mean SD t p Substance Use Days 0.58 3.04 0.59 2.21 0.09 .930 CRAFFT Items 0.15 0.52 0.52 1.03 −2.41 .020 Readiness to Change 12.10 7.84 16.50 7.85 −3.70 < .001 Attitudes Regarding Riskiness of Substance Use 14.33 2.87 16.65 2.80 −4.91 < .001 Note. Maximum score for Substance Use Days: 30, CRAFFT Items: 6, Readiness to Change: 24, and Attitudes Regarding Riskiness of Substance Use: 18. No significant changes were found in substance use days. Significance was also found in increased readiness for change among those reporting current substance use, perhaps reflecting the utility of offering decisional freedom during a time associated with increasing ambivalence about the choice to initiate drug and alcohol use (Hohman et al., 2014). We did not observe appreciable increases in substance use or abuse across the length of the program, which is noteworthy, as the adolescent years may commonly be a time of increasing substance experimentation and use (Johnston et al., 2020). Adolescent drug and alcohol use continues to cause ongoing, intractable public health problems (Whyte et al., 2018). As established members of the school community network, school counselors are ideally positioned to play an important role in preventing and reducing drug and alcohol use and other mental health problems among adolescents (Fisher & Harrison, 2018; Haskins, 2012). Their unique integrated role in the school and in the students’ school life offers background knowledge of student experience, positive relational influence, and access to school and community resources when support is needed. Moreover, a program such as MCARR, which aligns with the roles of school personnel such as the school counselor, could lead to a sustainable approach for mitigating teen substance use. The spirit of MI, allowing individuals to make life choices freely, is a sound approach to counseling adolescents and lends itself well to school counseling interventions and changes in attitudes (Naar-King & Suarez, 2011). Further, the MCARR curriculummay increase general knowledge of drugs and alcohol and related risk literacy, which likely contributes to delaying drug and alcohol use until adulthood (Kuperman et al., 2013). Consistent with prior research, the MCARR may effectively use student connections and interaction to teach skills for coping with challenges related to drug and alcohol use (Henneberger et al., 2019).