The Professional Counselor | Volume 10, Issue 4 503 reported an average of 14.24 articles published or in press at the time of the survey, with an average of 1.69 publications per year. Carnegie classification appeared to be a significant predictor of publication rates across institutions, with faculty at more research-focused institutions publishing more often than faculty with lower research expectations. Similar to previous studies, results related to Carnegie classification appeared to underscore the emphasis certain programs place on publication standards, which can inform doctoral students’ decisions regarding which environments might be more suitable and conducive to their aspirations upon entering into academia. Although timely, Newhart et al.’s study has several limitations. There was no apparent time frame, leaving one to assume the reported information reflected participants’ total career publications, which could potentially skew the data. The 17% response rate for this study was another potential limitation, as it yielded responses from only 257 counselor educators with varying levels of experience. And as they highlighted, the use of self-report data may influence response bias and risk inflation of reported results based on desirability and bias. Although previous researchers have asserted that doctoral-granting institutions are more likely to emphasize publishing (Barrio Minton et al., 2008; Lambie et al., 2014; Ramsey et al., 2002), research has yet to establish this as fact by comparing actual publication trends across a variety of institution types. Barrio Minton et al. (2008) began to address the differences when they called for future research to “examine publication trends and histories of counselor educators who are employed in programs in universities that are likely to place a high emphasis on publication” (p. 135) but failed to define, with certainty, the type of universities that emphasize publications. Despite the call for a revised definition of scholarship 17 years ago (Ramsey et al., 2002), scholarship is still heavily defined based on number of publications (Whitaker, 2018). These prior studies highlight the increased need for the use of observational data over a longitudinal period to verify self-reports and increase understanding of publication writing for the career development and mentorship of CES doctoral students. Preparing CES Doctoral Students Although the exact extent is unknown, research and scholarship are clearly important factors for employability as CES faculty as well as career satisfaction and success (Lambie et al., 2014; Sackett et al., 2015). Preparing CES doctoral students to be employable, happy, and successful in academia requires (a) understanding the extent to which research is required at various institutions and (b) ensuring they are exposed to the necessary curricula related to research (Lambie et al., 2008, 2014; Lambie & Vaccaro, 2011; Sackett et al., 2015). Although we aim to clarify research expectations, it is important to first establish a framework to guide CES programs and faculty. HLT is one such framework that emphasizes planned and unplanned experiences that influence career direction (Krumboltz, 2009). Using HLT, CES faculty and programs can provide better learning environments and mentorship experiences through leveraging planned and unplanned activities. From this lens, faculty encourage students to engage in planned experiences aligned with their career aspirations while also being open to potentially formative unplanned experiences, especially related to research and scholarship. Happenstance Learning Theory (HLT) According to HLT, career development is the result of numerous planned and unplanned experiences over the course of life in which people develop skills, interests, knowledge, beliefs, preferences, sensitivities, emotions, and behaviors guiding them toward a career (Krumboltz, 2009). The process of career development from an HLT perspective involves individuals “engaging in a variety of interesting and beneficial activities, ascertaining their reactions, remaining alert to alternative opportunities, and learning skills for succeeding in each new activity” (Krumboltz, 2009, p. 135). From an HLT stance, individuals must take five specific actions toward career development (Krumboltz, 2009). Initially, they must acknowledge anxiety toward career choice as normal and understand that the career development