The Professional Counselor | Volume 10, Issue 4 505 experiences related to all of the roles of a counselor educator (CACREP, 2015), the emphasis placed on each varies depending on the program and institution. CES faculty prepare doctoral students for a future in teaching, research, and service, often through experiences co-instructing counselors-intraining, scholarly work, and leadership roles advocating for the profession (Protivnak & Foss, 2009; Sears & Davis, 2003). CACREP (2015) standards require that doctoral students learn research design, data analysis, program evaluation, and instrument design; however, there are not strict requirements or guidelines indicating what scholarly activities must be experienced before students graduate. Research experience is considered important because future CES faculty will likely be expected to engage in scholarship of some form, including writing journal articles, presenting at conferences, conducting program evaluations, and preparing other scholarly works such as grants and training manuals. However, after finding that less than a third of CES doctoral students had published a scholarly article, Lambie and Vaccaro (2011) concluded that CES programs must provide more planned experiences for student research engagement. Finally, because doctoral students inevitably learn valuable lessons in research and scholarship through the planned experience of completing a dissertation, CES programs must provide adequate training for students to successfully complete this milestone (Lambie et al., 2008). Unplanned Experiences CES doctoral students also have various opportunities for unplanned learning experiences with research and scholarship through coursework and collaboration with peers and faculty. Unplanned experiences that appear to be particularly important for CES doctoral students often occur through mentoring (Kuo et al., 2017; Perera-Diltz & Duba Sauerheber, 2017; Protivnak & Foss, 2009; Purgason et al., 2016; Sackett et al., 2015). Mentorship experiences include relationships with advisors and dissertation chairs, work beyond the classroom setting with faculty mentors, and relationships with counselor educators from other universities or institutions. Kahn (2001) posited that research-specific mentoring and collaborative research projects can create an environment conducive for CES doctoral students to develop research skills by observing faculty. Several studies have highlighted the importance of mentorship in the career development of CES students (Casto et al., 2005; Cusworth, 2001; Hoskins & Goldberg, 2005; Nelson et al., 2006; Protivnak & Foss, 2009). Protivnak and Foss (2009) interviewed 141 current CES doctoral students who stressed the helpfulness of mentorship while navigating their doctoral program but also discussed the consequences of a lack of mentorship and support. Participants who received mentorship stated that it helped with balance and guidance in the program, while participants without adequate mentorship shared feelings of frustration and being on their own. Further, Love et al. (2007) found that research mentoring was a predictor of whether or not CES doctoral students became involved in research projects. CES Program Characteristics Influencing Engagement in Research Experiences All of these research experiences, both planned and unplanned, will vary across programs and depend on a multitude of factors, one of which might be the Carnegie classification of the institution where the program is housed. Carnegie classification divides colleges and universities that house CES programs into several categories, including the following: doctoral universities, master’s colleges and universities, baccalaureate colleges, and special focus institutions. Doctoral universities are further classified based on a measure of research activity into one of three levels: R1, for very high research activity; R2, for high research activity; and D/PU (doctoral/professional universities), for moderate research activity. If previous literature indicating that doctoral-granting institutions are more likely to emphasize publishing and produce more publications (Barrio Minton et al., 2008; Lambie et al., 2014;