512 The Professional Counselor | Volume 10, Issue 4 publication outcomes, accounting for 3.3% of publications over the past decade, a finding consistent with previous literature (Barrio Minton et al., 2008; Ramsey et al., 2002) and the method by which Carnegie classifications are attained. The fact that CES faculty at M1 institutions, which supposedly do not place high emphasis on research, are publishing at a rate similar to faculty at D/PU institutions is interesting. It is possible that CES faculty at M1 institutions are spending more time engaged in scholarly activity because of the perceived importance of publishing for tenure/promotion (Barrio Minton at al., 2008; Ramsey et al., 2002; Ray et al., 2011; Whitaker, 2018). Applicants for tenure-track positions, as well as tenure-track CES faculty already at these programs, might expect to experience pressure to publish at a higher level similar to that of D/ PUs for a variety of reasons. Faculty at M1 institutions might feel motivated to increase their publications as their institution attempts to change classification, which could result in increased external funding, attained interest of high-quality faculty, and gained recognition (Olson, 2018). Alternatively, CES faculty working at M1 or D/PU institutions who plan to apply to programs at institutions with high or very high research activity might feel pressure to publish more frequently in order to advance their careers as desired (Lambie et al., 2014). Salary may also influence CES faculty considering institutional moves, with annual salaries at R1 institutions averaging $17,000 more than R2, and annual salaries at R2 averaging $9,000 more than D/PU and $7,500 more than M1 institutions (Chronicle of Higher Education, 2018). Another unique finding is that it appears the observed differences between R1 and R2 CES faculty publication rates match Newhart et al.’s (2020), providing further evidence CES faculty at R1 classified institutions as a whole are publishing at a rate 1.32 times higher than CES faculty at R2 institutions in ACA-affiliated journals. It also appears Newhart et al.’s findings underestimate program differences and do not account for the differences among master’s-level programs as evidenced by the higher rate of publication by CES faculty at M1 programs. The results of the current study highlight the importance of an emphasis on research and scholarship in CES doctoral programs in order to prepare future CES faculty to be successful in their roles. As doctoral students begin their job search, students seeking faculty positions face the uncertainty of not knowing where positions will be available and at what types of institutions. Although some doctoral students may have a clear idea of the type of institution where they wish to work, it is not guaranteed they will secure their desired position. In a profession that is growing quickly and becoming increasingly competitive, it is essential that CES programs support doctoral students in honing their research skills for career success and to promote job satisfaction. In programs where CES faculty are expected to publish at higher rates, doctoral students with inadequate preparation are at risk of becoming unsatisfied in their positions, which can result in decreased productivity and retention (Wong & Heng, 2009). Therefore, a focus on research and scholarship in CES programs not only helps in the career development of doctoral students but promotes retention of faculty in the long term (Sangganjanavanich & Balkin, 2013). Limitations Limitations of this study include issues regarding sample and journal selection. Regarding journals selected, because previous research indicates that counselor educators most often publish in counseling-related journals (Barrio Minton et al., 2008), we chose to limit our study to ACA division journals. However, many counselor educators publish in non-ACA journals, such as Professional School Counseling and the International Journal of Play Therapy. Our sample included only programs that were listed as CACREP accredited in August of 2018, which will have included programs that were either merging or losing accreditation, as well as not including programs that have since become accredited.