576 The Professional Counselor | Volume 10, Issue 4 Within pedagogy for doctoral student preparation in gatekeeping, research is needed on outcome measures for the attainment of gatekeeping competence. In addition, a greater understanding of the impact of the personal experiences of those doctoral students who were remediated during their master’s preparation on their perspectives as future gatekeepers would be useful to the profession. Also, research on the amount of instructional time needed to effectively teach gatekeeping to a level of minimum competence is needed. Conflict of Interest and Funding Disclosure The authors reported no conflict of interest or funding contributions for the development of this manuscript. References *References marked with an asterisk indicate literature included in Table 1. Abma, T. A., & Widdershoven, G. A. M. (2008). Evaluation and/as social relation. Evaluation, 14(2), 209–225. Allen, R. F., & Pilnick, S. (1973). Confronting the shadow organization: How to detect and defeat negative norms. Organizational Dynamics, 1(4), 3–18. *American Counseling Association. (2014). ACA code of ethics. *Association for Counselor Education and Supervision Taskforce on Best Practices in Clinical Supervision. (2011, April). Best practices in clinical supervision. ACES-Best-Practices-in-Clinical-Supervision-2011.pdf Baker, S. B., Exum, H. A., & Tyler, R. E. (2002). The developmental process of clinical supervisors in training: An investigation of the supervisor complexity model. Counselor Education and Supervision, 42(1), 15–30. Barrio Minton, C. A., Wachter Morris, C., & Bruner, S. L. (2018). Pedagogy in counselor education: 2011-2015 update. Counselor Education and Supervision, 57(3), 227–236. *Bemak, F., Epp, L. R., & Keys, S. G. (1999). Impaired graduate students: A process model of graduate program monitoring and intervention. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 21(1), 19–30. Bernard, J. M. (1997). The discrimination model. In C. E. Watkins, Jr. (Ed.), Handbook of psychotherapy supervision (pp. 310–327). Wiley. *Bernard, J. M. (2006). Tracing the development of clinical supervision. The Clinical Supervisor, 24(1–2), 3–21. *Bhat, C. S. (2005). Enhancing counseling gatekeeping with performance appraisal protocols. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 27(3), 399–411. Bloom, B. S. (Ed.). (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. David McKay Company. Bodner, K. E. (2012). Ethical principles and standards that inform educational gatekeeping practices in psychology. Ethics & Behavior, 22(1), 60–74. Borders, L. D., Rainey, L. M., Crutchfield, L. B., & Martin, D. W. (1996). Impact of a counseling supervision course on doctoral students’ cognitions. Counselor Education and Supervision, 35(3), 204–217.