The Professional Counselor | Volume 10, Issue 4 445 A similar dynamic exists within the Washington state educational system, whereby only the research-intensive universities (i.e., University of Washington, Washington State University) may offer doctoral degrees. As in California, master’s counselor education programs within Washington state universities are only operated within the teaching institutions (e.g., Central Washington University, Eastern Washington University, Western Washington University) and no programs are offered at the research-intensive state universities. Unfortunately, one of the first-ever CACREP-accredited doctoral programs was at the University of Washington, which closed its program and lost its CACREP accreditation status in 1988 (CACREP, n.d.). State political dynamics are a significant barrier to starting new doctoral programs within the Western state public university systems. Because of state laws and regulations, the real need generated by the significant number of master’s counseling programs at teaching-focused and less research-intensive state universities in California and Washington has no real influence on doctoral program development. No new state university doctoral programs are on the horizon or even under consideration. Instead, new doctoral programs in Western states will likely only start at private universities. Unfortunately, these institutions tend to have higher tuition without the advantage of the graduate student funding that their state counterparts generally offer. Pace (2016) found that institution type (i.e., public vs. private) and enrollment numbers for the institution were predictors of whether the institution had a CACREP-accredited doctoral program. As of 2018, the majority of doctoral programs were housed in public institutions (n = 64), with 19 programs at private institutions (CACREP, n.d.). Of these 19 programs at private institutions, 12 (63%) were at professional or master’s-level universities according to Carnegie classification (The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, 2019). Programs within private colleges and universities represented more than half of all programs (12 of 21 programs; 57%) at non–researchintensive universities (i.e., professional or master’s-level classifications). Private universities with professional and master’s-level classifications who develop doctoral CES programs seem less likely to have the financial support to offer scholarships and tuition waivers to students when compared to research institutions. Student funding has historically been valued as a core principle of doctoral education. It often provides doctoral students with full-time opportunities to shadow faculty members and develop research self-efficacy (Lambie & Vaccaro, 2011), which is considered the primary focus of doctorallevel counselor education (Adkison-Bradley, 2013). Program faculty in these new private doctoral programs may face heavier workloads given the lack of student funding (e.g., increased teaching and advising loads) and support for faculty research and scholarship. This could potentially limit the research training available to doctoral students at these new institutions, which may hinder the ability for these doctoral students at emerging programs to be adequately prepared for the scholarly work required as a future faculty member. If unaddressed, these programs would not contribute to meeting the growing need for qualified doctoral counselor educators in the Western region, and the pipeline problem would continue. For example, in Washington, several private universities with CACREP-accredited master’s programs (i.e., Antioch University-Seattle, City University of Seattle, Seattle Pacific University) have recently established doctoral programs in CES. In the three institutions, all new faculty hired after 2013 have completed doctoral degrees in CES from institutions outside of the Western region, with the majority of those doctorates being completed in the Southern region. Although not CACREP accredited at the time of writing, these new doctoral programs appear to be a potential solution to