TPC Journal-Vol 11-Issue-3 - FULL ISSUE

360 The Professional Counselor | Volume 11, Issue 3 Table 2 Pre- and Post-MCARR CRAFFT Endorsement by Item and Total Score CRAFFT Individual Items Endorsed Pre Post 1. Have you ever ridden in a car driven by someone (including yourself) who was “high” or had been using alcohol or drugs? no 43 34 yes 3 12 2. Do you ever use alcohol or drugs to relax, feel better about yourself, or fit in? no 44 44 yes 2 2 3. Do you ever use alcohol or drugs while you are by yourself, or alone? no 45 42 yes 1 4 4. Do you ever forget things you did while using alcohol or drugs? no 46 43 yes 0 3 5. Do your family or friends ever tell you that you should cut down on your drinking or drug use? no 46 45 yes 0 1 6. Have you ever gotten into trouble while using alcohol or drugs? no 46 45 yes 0 1 Student CRAFFT Total Scoresa Score Pre Post 0 41 33 1 4 6 2 0 5 Number of items endorsed “yes” 3 1 1 4 0 0 5 0 1 6 0 0 a This portion of the table shows the number of students endorsing 0–6 items on the CRAFFT survey. Students with higher-risk scores (total score ≥ 2) changed from 1 student at pre to 7 students at post. Study Limitations Although an important first step in developing and evaluating a primary prevention curriculum for school personnel, this pilot study has limitations worth noting. First, this is an open trial. Thus, without a matched control group or an active control group in the context of an experiment, we cannot make strong causal inferences about the impact of our intervention on youth attitudes and readiness for change around substance use. Second, this was a small sample study. A larger sample would more strongly speak to the robustness of the results we report here. Third, the incorporation of more comprehensive substance use instruments into the survey would improve the strength of inferences about the impact of MCARR on substance use behavior. Fourth, the assessment of readiness to change was only applicable to students self-reporting substance use. Future studies may focus on readiness to change among all participants, regardless of substance use self-assessment. In addition, in spite of the specificity of the curriculum, it is possible that the methods of content